Federal Highway Administration Federal Transit Administration
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Intelligent Vehicle Initiative; Request for Information
Agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
Federal Transit Administration (FTA), and National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT.
ACTION: Notice; request for information.
SUMMARY: The USDOT is seeking comments from all sources
(public, private, governmental, academic, professional, public
interest groups, and other interested parties) on the Intelligent
Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The IVI is being established as a major
new component of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Program. The intent of the IVI is to improve significantly the
safety and efficiency of motor vehicle operations by reducing
the probability of motor vehicle crashes. To accomplish this,
the IVI will accelerate the development, availability, and use
of driving assistance and control intervention systems to reduce
deaths, injuries, property damage, and the societal loss that
result from motor vehicle crashes.
These systems would help drivers process information, make
decisions, and operate vehicles more effectively. These systems
would include provisions for warning drivers, recommending control
actions, intervening with driver control, and introducing temporary
or partial automated control of the vehicle in hazardous situations.
The IVI systems also would improve mobility and highway efficiency
through the application of selected motorist information services.
Sensing, processing, and communications technologies would be
installed in passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses, and may be
complemented by highway infrastructure technology. These integrated
technologies would be linked to automated actuators and controls
as well as in-vehicle driver interfaces that adhere to well-founded
human factors requirements. The purpose of this document is to
solicit comments on the approach, to obtain expressions of interest
in the participation, and to request responses to specific questions
provided in this document. This is neither a request for proposals
nor an invitation for bids.
DATES: Comments on this announcement should be submitted
on or before January 30, 1998.
ADDRESSES: Responses to this announcement must be mailed
directly to the Federal Highway Administration, Intelligent Transportation
Systems Joint Program Office, HVH-1, Room 3400, Washington D.C.
20590. See Supplementary Information section for electronic access
and filing addresses.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For FHWA: Mr. Ray Resendes,
ITS Joint Program Office, (202) 366-2182; Mr. George Ostensen,
(703) 285-2021; or Ms. Rose McMurray, (202) 366-2742. For NHTSA:
Dr. Joseph Kanianthra, (202) 366-5662. For FTA: Mr. Walter Kulyk,
(202) 366-5991. All are located at the United States Department
of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590.
Office hours are from 7:45 a.m. to 4:15 p.m., e.t., Monday through
Friday, except Federal holidays.
Electronic Access and Filing Addresses.
You may submit comments and data by sending electronic mail
(E- mail) to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
E-mail responses are encouraged. Your comments on these important
issues are greatly appreciated, but the USDOT will not be able
to acknowledge responses.
Within the ITS Program, the USDOT has conducted research and
development to improve driving safety and efficiency. These include
the Driver Vehicle Interface, Collision Avoidance, Automated Highway
Systems, and Motor Carrier Research Programs. The IVI will take
advantage of these maturing USDOT programs and the synergism inherent
in their close coordination. The IVI will unite these programs
into a common framework focusing on multi-functional integration
of proven systems using autonomous vehicle-based technology complemented
by highway-based technologies. The mix of desirable and cost-effective
technologies may vary among passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.
During the past few months, the staffs of the FHWA, the NHTSA,
and the FTA have met to review the ongoing and planned research
and development programs of these three agencies that may contribute
to the IVI. These agencies have identified areas of common interest,
synergies among ongoing projects, compatibilities among passenger
vehicles, trucks, and buses, and opportunities for joint participation.
Following these interagency discussions, the USDOT decided that
this progress should be shared with all interested public and
private sector stakeholders and comment should be sought.
Given the differing interests and priorities of various stakeholders,
the USDOT recognizes that to formulate and develop an IVI program,
it is desirable to have the joint participation of these groups
for information purposes. Therefore, the USDOT proposes the establishment
of a working group that would provide information to the USDOT
so that the agency can adequately define and implement the IVI
program. The working group would be administered by, and report
findings to, the Intelligent Transportation Society of America
Motor vehicle crashes and other incidents exact high penalties
in fatalities, injuries, and economic costs resulting from emergency
and health care, property damage, and highway congestion. The
NHTSA estimates that the financial burden of these crashes exceeds
$150 billion per year. If highway safety is to be improved significantly,
the number of highway crashes must be cut.
The objectives of the IVI program are to advance the state
of availability of in-vehicle systems to: (1) Improve highway
safety by reducing the number and severity of crashes, and (2)
improve highway efficiency, mobility, and productivity, and environmental
quality by increasing traffic throughput, lowering vehicle operating
costs, and achieving more predictable travel times. These objectives
would be realized by facilitating and accelerating the early availability,
use, and acceptance of effective driving assistance, control intervention,
and motorist information capabilities. Achievement of the safety-
related benefits is the highest IVI program priority.
It is envisioned that the IVI program would include cooperative
efforts with partners from the motor vehicle industry to develop
advanced systems, integrate them into vehicles and appropriate
infrastructure, and evaluate performance in real-world conditions.
The IVI program would also develop and validate performance specifications
and design guidelines for systems that would improve significantly
the safety of motor vehicle operations.
Jointly with industry and other stakeholders, the USDOT would
establish measurable objectives and milestones for IVI systems
applicable to passenger vehicles, commercial trucks, and both
intercity and transit buses.
The IVI is a multi-agency USDOT research, development, and
evaluation program. It is intended that the IVI program would
extend and expand current partnerships with the private sector
and other stakeholders. It would merge all vehicle-focused ITS
activities under one program. The IVI would emphasize the significant
and continuing role of the driver in highway safety. It would
cover applications for passenger vehicles, light trucks, vans,
sport and utility vehicles, commercial trucks, transit and intercity
buses, and specialized vehicles, such as, emergency and enforcement
vehicles, highway maintenance vehicles and snow plows, on all
types of highways.
The IVI safety features would include capabilities to warn
drivers of hazardous situations, recommend safe remedial vehicle
control actions, assist drivers in avoiding highway collisions,
and in some cases, intervene with partial or temporary control.
Hazardous situations may arise due to any combination of driver,
vehicle, or highway-related problems. The IVI safety features
would rely heavily on advanced electronic and communication capability
and would supplement the capabilities of motor vehicle drivers
to operate vehicles safely. Also, the IVI may include vehicles
with selected motorist information, navigation, adverse weather
information and traveler assistance features to reduce the complexity
of driving and to improve travel mobility. It is expected that
the IVI system capabilities would be tailored to specific types
of vehicles, such as passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.
An effort has been initiated within the USDOT to define and
coordinate the Department's ongoing vehicle-related safety research.
This effort includes the identification of areas of common interest,
synergies among ongoing projects, compatibilities among vehicle
types, and opportunities for joint participation. The work associated
with the initial effort is nearing completion. During the course
of this work, it has become clear that suggestions from the public
and private sectors on program content and direction would be
helpful. In recognition of this opportunity, the USDOT proposes
the establishment of a working group that would offer information
so that the agency can adequately define the IVI program.
In order to fulfill the program requirements, the IVI must
identify and conduct the necessary research to ensure that the
driver warning, driver assistance, driver intervention, and travel
information systems work effectively and reliably in both independent
and integrated modes, that they operate in a consistent and efficient
manner and are easily understood by drivers, and that drivers
accept and use the systems.
Ongoing and recently completed work on crash avoidance, in-vehicle
information systems, automated highway systems, and motor carrier
issues would provide a strong foundation for the IVI research.
Research would continue throughout the IVI program. This research
would address areas such as human factors, sensor performance,
conditions where warnings are needed and conditions where warnings
would be a nuisance, modeling, evaluation methods, and other in-vehicle
and highway-based technologies. The IVI would include assessment
of driver acceptance. A mix of analytic, test track, and on-road
research, and testing is anticipated. Following testing in an
experimental environment, fleets of equipped vehicles would be
evaluated in on-road operational settings at various stages of
the program. The USDOT would aggressively pursue partnerships
and other cooperative arrangements with the motor vehicle, trucking,
and bus industries and their suppliers, States and other government
organizations, academic institutions, and other interested parties
to fulfill the program requirements.
The USDOT developed a roadmap of how the IVI program would
proceed. A diagram of the roadmap is shown at the end of this
This roadmap represents an attempt to illustrate the broad IVI
program elements and the sequence in which these program elements
would be accomplished. The duration of the IVI program runs from
left to right and it is not drawn to scale. The major boxes in
the roadmap include the following:
- Crosscutting activities represent groups of actions that
influence and guide all the major program elements. They include
such topics as: Architecture and standards development; research,
development, and testing in human factors, communications, and
technology; acquisition, expansion, and validation of evaluation
tools such as simulation models; development and execution of
an outreach plan to ensure joint participation of industry and
other stakeholders; development and implementation of field operation
evaluation plans; and, program planning and administration covering
IVI program definition and oversight, and any other crosscutting
functions and responsibilities not covered elsewhere. The technical
issues for many individual services are expected to be independent
of the vehicle platforms and when this occurs such issues would
be studied together.
- Development of services would cover the research, development,
testing, and evaluation of individual crash avoidance and efficiency-
enhancing systems, such as those listed under the caption ``Candidate
Services'' in this document.
- Selection of services for integration represents the activities
necessary to select specific IVI services (and systems to fulfill
those services) and the mix of services that should be included
in integrated packages of multiple IVI services. Selection involves
extensive work on estimating the benefits and costs, as well
as anticipated user acceptance of integrated systems that provide
a combination of services.
- The integrated system design and development step covers
the research, development, and prototype testing necessary to
fulfill the requirements for fully describing IVI capabilities,
as well as system and subsystem specifications for the construction
of the vehicles and the infrastructure modifications necessary
for field operational tests of integrated systems.
- The operational tests and evaluations activity, as expected,
implements the plans for field tests in real-world settings on
actual highways, executes a complete evaluation of the integrated
IVI services subjected to the operational tests, develops deployment
plans, establishes performance thresholds based on objective
test performance, and develops recommendations.
- Product deployment refers to the actions by motor vehicle
manufacturers and their suppliers to make and offer IVI systems
to highway users in production motor vehicles. It is anticipated
that the IVI systems, after operational tests demonstrate the
benefits of their integrated services, would be adopted by the
manufacturers as part of their standard product line. Product
development also includes actions by State, regional, and local
governments to install infrastructure- based IVI system components
on their highway systems. This activity is indicated as the final
step and the ultimate objective of the IVI program.
The USDOT has concluded that the following services are prime
candidates for improvement through application of advanced in-vehicle
technology. It is expected that during the course of the IVI program,
the mix of individual IVI services selected for integration may
vary among passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. Please note
that these services include some existing or slightly modified
ITS user services. The following categories of advanced technologies
are identified as candidate IVI services because they:
- Improve safety;
- may impact safety;
- provide platform-specific functions; or
- provide supporting capabilities for other future services.
- Rear End Collision Avoidance
This feature would sense the presence and speed of vehicles and
objects in front of the equipped vehicle and would provide warnings
and limited control of the vehicle speed (coasting, downshifting,
or braking) to minimize risk of collisions with vehicles and
objects in the vehicle's lane of travel. It is expected that
the first implementation of this service would be through autonomous
in-vehicle systems. These systems would monitor the motion and
location of vehicles and other objects in front of the vehicle
and would advise the driver, through an appropriate driver-vehicle
interface, of imminent rear-end crashes. These systems may share
some elements of, and are expected to complement the performance
of, adaptive cruise control systems which are expected to precede
collision avoidance systems as a commercial product. Later versions
of these systems may include automatic braking in the event of
an impending crash. The performance of these systems may be enhanced
through future combination with other systems, such as other
collision avoidance systems, route guidance-navigation systems
with enhanced map data bases, and cooperative communication with
the highway infrastructure to set adaptive cruise control systems
at safe speeds.
- Road Departure Collision Avoidance
This feature would provide warning and control assistance to
the driver through lane or road edge tracking and by determining
the safe speed for road geometry in front of the vehicle. It
is expected that the first implementation of this service would
be through autonomous in-vehicle systems. These systems would
monitor the lane position, motion relative to the road edge,
and vehicle speed relative to road geometry and road conditions
and would advise the driver, through an appropriate driver-vehicle
interface, of imminent unintentional road departure. Later versions
of these systems may include cooperative communication with the
highway infrastructure to automatically provide safe speeds for
upcoming road geometry and conditions. The performance of these
systems may be enhanced through future combination with other
systems; such as other collision avoidance systems, drowsy driver
advisory systems, and route guidance-navigation systems with
enhanced map data bases.
- Lane Change and Merge Collision Avoidance
It is expected that the first implementation of this service
would be through in-vehicle systems which may be augmented with
vehicle-to- vehicle communications. These systems would monitor
the lane position, relative speed and position of vehicles, including
motorcycles, beside and to the rear of the vehicle and would
advise the driver during the decision-phase of a lane-change
maneuver, through an appropriate driver-vehicle interface, of
the potential for a collision. Later versions of these systems
may provide additional advice of an imminent crash to the driver
during the action-phase of the lane change or entry-exit maneuver.
The performance of these systems may be enhanced through future
combination with other systems; such as other collision avoidance
systems and roadside communication and sensing systems.
- Intersection Collision Avoidance
It is expected that the first implementation of this service
would be through in-vehicle systems which are augmented by information
from enhanced map data bases or from cooperative communication
with the highway infrastructure. These systems would monitor
position relative to intersection geometry, relative speed and
position of other vehicles in the vicinity of the intersection
and would advise the driver, through an appropriate driver-vehicle
interface, of appropriate action to avoid a violation of right-of-way
or to avoid an impending collision. Complexities of providing
this service include the need to sense the position and motion
of vehicles and determining the intent of these vehicles to turn,
slow down, stop, or violate right-of-way. A fully autonomous
in-vehicle system would probably not be capable of providing
- Railroad Crossing Collision Avoidance
This feature would provide in vehicle warnings to drivers when
they approach a railroad crossing that is unsafe to enter due
to approaching or present rail traffic. Initial implementation
of this feature is anticipated for buses and trucks carrying
hazardous cargo. This service, which would share many onboard
vehicle components with intersection collision avoidance systems,
is dependent on communications and the deployment of infrastructure
- Vision Enhancement
It is expected that the first implementation of this service
would be through autonomous in-vehicle systems. These systems
would use infrared radiation from pedestrians and roadside features
to provide the driver with an enhanced view of the road-ahead.
Later versions of these systems may include additional information
from improvements in the highway infrastructure, such as infrared
reflective lane edge markings.
- Location-Specific Alert and Warning
This feature would provide intelligent in-vehicle warning information
by integrating vehicle speed and pertinent vehicle dynamics information
with knowledge of road geometry (from a map database or beacon
input). Later versions would include information about environmental
and road surface conditions to provide the driver with warnings,
such as excessive speed for curves or alerts on upcoming traffic
signs and signalized intersections. This feature may include
the ability, at unusually complex and hazardous highway locations,
to provide in-vehicle warnings which replicate one or more types
of roadside signs. These capabilities would be integrated with
other in- vehicle navigation and route guidance features with
collision avoidance warning.
- Automatic Collision Notification
It is expected that the first implementation of this service
would be through in-vehicle systems which are augmented by communication
links to Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP). These systems
would monitor position of the vehicle and severity of the crash.
This information would be transmitted automatically to the appropriate
PSAP for the location of the crash. These systems may also be
combined with manually activated systems for requesting roadside
- Smart Restraints and Occupant Protection Systems
This feature would provide advance warning of impending (forward
or side) crashes and would pre-deploy the appropriate occupant
protection systems in a vehicle prior to the impact to obtain
maximum protection for the vehicle occupants. If reliable under
all potential impact situations, this might permit slower deployment
speeds for the air bags, allow pre-tensioned or load limited
belt systems or smart head protection systems and ultimately
more protection for the vehicle occupants.
Safety Impacting Services
This feature would provide location and route guidance input
to the driver and would support the various collision avoidance
capabilities with road geometry and location data. It would also
provide the necessary capability to filter traffic information
to select those messages that are applicable to the vehicle location
and route of travel. It would also offer the capability to recommend
optimal routing based on driver preferences. More advanced versions
of this service may integrate real-time traffic conditions into
the calculations of optimal routes. For paratransit applications
this would assist passenger demand and record keeping.
- Real Time Traffic and Traveler Information
These IVI systems would have capabilities to access in-vehicle
databases and receive travel-related information from the infrastructure
(roadside or wide-area transmissions). Information categories
would include items, such as vehicle location and route guidance
instructions, motorist and traveler services information, safety
and advisory information, and other real-time updates on conditions,
such as congestion, work zones, environmental, and road surface
conditions. This feature would provide an integrated approach
to the presentation of information to the driver for safety warnings
and other advisories related to the driving task. More advanced
system capabilities would include the ability to react to dynamic
information on environmental and road condition thereby augmenting
information contained in the static map databases.
- Driver Comfort and Convenience
This service is included in the IVI program to ensure that the
increasing number of comfort and convenience features in vehicles,
such as cellular telephones and fax machines, do not distract
the driver or increase the complexity of the driving task. This
service would integrate these features into the driver vehicle
interface to permit prioritization of information sources and
reduce distractions. Real- time dispatching for fleet operations
is included in this category.
Platform Specific Services--Commercial Vehicle
- Vehicle Stability Warning and Assistance
An early version of this service would assist drivers in maintaining
safe speeds on curves by measuring the rollover stability properties
of a typical heavy vehicle as it is operated on the roadway,
and by providing the driver with a graphical depiction of the
vehicle's loading condition relative to its rollover propensity.
More advanced services would employ an active brake control system
coupled with electronic brake system technology and infrastructure
provided information to selectively apply brakes to stabilize
the vehicle and, thus, reduce the incidence of rear trailer rollover
in double- and triple-trailer combination vehicles during crash
avoidance or other emergency steering maneuvers.
- Driver Condition Warning
This service would provide a driver monitoring and warning capability
to alert the driver to problems, such as drowsiness or other
types of impairments. It is expected that the first implementation
of this service would be on commercial and transit vehicles.
- Vehicle Diagnostics
The vehicle diagnostic information service would be an extension
of current vehicle monitoring and self-diagnostic capabilities,
such as oil pressure and coolant temperature gauges. This service
would monitor vehicle safety-related functions. Examples of conditions
monitored include braking system integrity, tire pressure, sensor
and actuator performance, and the communication system. This
information is intended to be useful to the driver, as well as
to assist and support fleet maintenance and management functions.
- Cargo Identification
This service would focus on heavy vehicle operations, especially
hazardous material transportation. This feature would identify
and monitor key safety parameters of the cargo, such as temperature,
and pressure. The driver would be warned if any unsafe conditions
- Automated Transactions
This feature would implement capabilities for electronic transactions,
such as electronic toll collection, parking fee payment, transit
fare payment and additional commercial vehicle-related functions,
such as credentials and permit verification, using such technology
as transponders and ``smart cards.''
- Safety Event Recorder
This feature would record selected driver and vehicle parameters
to support the reconstruction of conditions leading to a critical
safety event. Data from this recorder could provide input to
the crash notification subsystem for transmission of collision
data to the emergency service provider.
Platform Specific Services--Transit Vehicles
- Obstacle/Pedestrian Detection
This service would warn the driver when pedestrians, vehicles,
or obstacles are in close proximity to the driver's intended
path. This could be accomplished with on-board sensors or infrastructure-based
sensors communicating to vehicles.
- Tight Maneuver/Precision Docking
This service would position the bus or commercial vehicle very
precisely relative to the curb or loading platform. The driver
would maneuver the bus into the loading area and then turn it
over to automation. Sensors would continually determine the lateral
distance to the curb, front and rear, and the longitudinal distance
to the end of the vehicle loading area. The driver would be able
to override at any time by operating brakes or steering, and
would be expected to monitor the situation and take emergency
action if necessary (for example, if a pedestrian steps in front
of the vehicle). When the vehicle is properly docked, it would
stop and revert to manual control. In freight or bus terminals
this service could increase facility throughput as well as safety.
Transit Passenger Monitoring
- Transit Passenger Information
This service would provide transit passengers with real-time
transit network information during travel. The emphasis within
the IVI program would be to reduce the non-driving task workload
of the driver by providing alternative means for passengers to
access location and transit service information.
Platform Specific Services--Special Vehicle
- Fully Automated Control at Certain Facilities
This service would enhance efficiency and productivity by providing
automated movement of vehicles in dedicated facilities. Initial
applications may include automated bus movement in maintenance
areas and automated container movement within a terminal area.
The transit bus application could be a preliminary use of automation
in a low- speed, controlled environment. The automated container
movement application would consist of using vehicle automation
technologies to move containers within rail-, truck-, or ship-yards
or other centralized facilities.
- Low Friction Warning and Control Assist
This service would initially warn the driver of reduced traction,
but in advanced configuration, would also provide control assist
capabilities to assist the driver in regaining control of the
vehicle. Sensors on-board the vehicle would detect when the tire-to-road
surface coefficient of friction is reduced due to water, ice,
or road surface condition.
- Longitudinal Control
Longitudinal control would range from normal cruise control to
advanced cooperative cruise control and applications which permit
full automatic braking. Intelligent cruise control senses the
presence and relative velocity of moving vehicles ahead of the
equipped vehicle, and adjusts the speed of travel to maintain
a safe separation between vehicles. Vehicle speed is adjusted
either by allowing the vehicle to coast or by transmission downshifting.
More advanced longitudinal control systems would be capable of
detecting a vehicle ahead in the same lane, which may be traveling
at any speed or may be fully stopped. A full range of braking
capability and operating speeds would be available to the equipped
vehicle, including stop-and-go traffic operations. This service
can be provided by autonomous in-vehicle systems or with assistance
from vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle- infrastructure cooperation.
- Lateral Control
This service would sense the center of the lane and continually
actuate the steering to keep the vehicle in the center of its
lane. For the service to dependably detect the lane boundaries,
some infrastructure cooperation may be required, such as accurately
painted lane marker stripes, embedded magnetic nails, or radar-reflective
stripes. The driver would be able to assume control at any time.
Purpose of Comment Solicitation
This document solicits comments on the IVI, expressions of
interest to participate with a proposed working group to provide
the USDOT with information so that the agency can adequately define
and implement the IVI program, and comments on other questions
or issues regarding this topic. It must be emphasized that the
working group is being established for the purpose of providing
information to ITS America so the USDOT can formulate the IVI
program. The USDOT could potentially enter into partnerships with
members of the working group.
Important issues related to the IVI are facing the USDOT and
others, in both the public and private sectors. Responses to the
following questions are requested to help the DOT as it finalizes
the organization of the IVI program. As appropriate, please reference
experiences you may have had that address the issues.
- Would you or your organization be interested in participating
in the working group, or in cooperative research and development
for the IVI program? If yes, in what way? If not, what would
encourage you to participate?
- (a) Does the sequence of steps outlined in the roadmap provide
a meaningful description of the system integration process? Are
there other elements that need to be added to the roadmap? What
criteria should be used in the selection of systems to be integrated?
What steps need to be taken to ensure compatible deployment timetables
for the infrastructure and in-vehicle parts of cooperative systems?
(b) Each of the listed services is currently the subject of a
development program within the USDOT, or is already a fully developed
service. Are there services that should be added or deleted from
(c) The USDOT believes that it is feasible to develop systems
to provide the listed services in the near term. Are there other
longer- term services that the USDOT should be considering?
- What new areas of research and development would be required
to support the IVI program?
- What are the critical issues that need to be addressed and
the activities that should be initiated to hasten the deployment
of advanced technology systems for providing each of the listed
- What data are currently available to quantify the expected
benefits, user acceptance, and costs of systems that can provide
the listed services? What approaches can be used to obtain new
estimates of those benefits, user acceptance, and costs?
(23 U.S.C. 307 note and 315; secs. 6051-6059, Pub. L. 102-240,
105 Stat. 1914, 2189 as amended by sec. 404, Pub. L. 102-388,
106 Stat. 1564, and sec. 338, Pub. L. 104-59, 109 Stat. 603, 604;
and 49 CFR 1.48)
Issued: December 11, 1997. Ricardo Martinez, Administrator for
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Issued: December 11, 1997. Gordon J. Linton, Federal Transit Administrator.
Issued: December 11, 1997. Kenneth R. Wykle, Federal Highway Administrator.
BILLING CODE 4910-24-P
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN23DE97.000
[FR Doc. 97-33348 Filed 12-22-97; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-22-C
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